The Target Markets Program Administrators Association (TMPAA) is an organization dedicated to the unique challenges of Program Specialists. The TMPAA defines Program Business as insurance products targeted to a niche market or class, generally representing a book of similar risks placed with one carrier. Administration is done through Program Specialists who have developed an expertise in that market or class. Administrative responsibilities are negotiated between the Specialist and Carrier, but would include underwriting selection, binding, issuing, billing, and often times marketing, premium collections, data gathering, claims management/loss control and possibly risk sharing. Program Specialists typically target their niches through differentiation either in product, risk management services, delivery mechanism or price. Specialists can distribute these programs on a retail, wholesale, or direct basis.